witchcraft Bedeutung, Definition witchcraft: 1. the activity of performing magic to help or harm other people2. the use of magic, esp. in stories, to help or harm. Deutsche Übersetzung von "witchcraft" | Der offizielle Collins Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch online. Über Deutsche Übersetzungen von Englische. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für witchcraft im Online-Wörterbuch filmparadiset.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch).
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But if the flower still remained upright, he will live. The sorcerer would in that case try his skill another day, with perhaps better success.
According to Beatrice Grimshaw , a journalist who visited the Cook Islands in , the uncrowned Queen Makea was believed to have possessed the mystic power called mana , giving the possessor the power to slay at will.
It also included other gifts, such as second sight to a certain extent, the power to bring good or evil luck , and the ability already mentioned to deal death at will.
A local newspaper informed that more than 50 people were killed in two Highlands provinces of Papua New Guinea in for allegedly practicing witchcraft.
Pagan practices formed a part of Russian and Eastern Slavic culture; the Russian people were deeply superstitious.
The witchcraft practiced consisted mostly of earth magic and herbology; it was not so significant which herbs were used in practices, but how these herbs were gathered.
Ritual centered on harvest of the crops and the location of the sun was very important. Spells also served for midwifery, shape-shifting, keeping lovers faithful, and bridal customs.
Spells dealing with midwifery and childbirth focused on the spiritual wellbeing of the baby. Her sweat would be wiped from her body using raw fish, and the fish would be cooked and fed to the groom.
Demonism, or black magic, was not prevalent. Persecution for witchcraft, mostly involved the practice of simple earth magic, founded on herbology, by solitary practitioners with a Christian influence.
In one case investigators found a locked box containing something bundled in a kerchief and three paper packets, wrapped and tied, containing crushed grasses.
While these customs were unique to Russian culture, they were not exclusive to this region. Russian pagan practices were often akin to paganism in other parts of the world.
The Chinese concept of chi , a form of energy that often manipulated in witchcraft, is known as bioplasma in Russian practices.
Spoilers could be made by gathering bone from a cemetery, a knot of the target's hair, burned wooden splinters and several herb Paris berries which are very poisonous.
Placing these items in sachet in the victim's pillow completes a spoiler. The Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and the ancient Egyptians recognized the evil eye from as early as 3, BCE; in Russian practices it is seen as a sixteenth-century concept.
The dominant societal concern those practicing witchcraft was not whether paganism was effective, but whether it could cause harm.
Impotence, stomach pains, barrenness, hernias, abscesses, epileptic seizures, and convulsions were all attributed to evil or witchcraft.
This is reflected in linguistics; there are numerous words for a variety of practitioners of paganism-based healers.
Ironically enough, there was universal reliance on folk healers — but clients often turned them in if something went wrong.
According to Russian historian Valerie A. Kivelson, witchcraft accusations were normally thrown at lower-class peasants, townspeople and Cossacks.
People turned to witchcraft as a means to support themselves. Males were targeted more, because witchcraft was associated with societal deviation.
Because single people with no settled home could not be taxed, males typically had more power than women in their dissent. The history of Witchcraft had evolved around society.
More of a psychological concept to the creation and usage of Witchcraft can create the assumption as to why women are more likely to follow the practices behind Witchcraft.
There is analyzed social and economic evidence to associate between witchcraft and women. Witchcraft trials occurred frequently in seventeenth-century Russia, although the "great witch-hunt" is believed [ by whom?
However, as the witchcraft-trial craze swept across Catholic and Protestant countries during this time, Orthodox Christian Europe indeed partook in this so-called "witch hysteria.
Very early on witchcraft legally fell under the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical body, the church, in Kievan Rus' and Muscovite Russia.
The sentence for an individual found guilty of witchcraft or sorcery during this time, and in previous centuries, typically included either burning at the stake or being tested with the "ordeal of cold water" or judicium aquae frigidae.
Accused persons who submerged were considered innocent, and ecclesiastical authorities would proclaim them "brought back," but those who floated were considered guilty of practicing witchcraft, and burned at the stake or executed in an unholy fashion.
The thirteenth-century bishop of Vladimir, Serapion Vladimirskii, preached sermons throughout the Muscovite countryside, and in one particular sermon revealed that burning was the usual punishment for witchcraft, but more often the cold water test was used as a precursor to execution.
Although these two methods of torture were used in the west and the east, Russia implemented a system of fines payable for the crime of witchcraft during the seventeenth century.
Thus, even though torture methods in Muscovy were on a similar level of harshness as Western European methods used, a more civil method was present.
In the introduction of a collection of trial records pieced together by Russian scholar Nikolai Novombergsk, he argues that Muscovite authorities used the same degree of cruelty and harshness as Western European Catholic and Protestant countries in persecuting witches.
Tsar Ivan IV reigned — took this matter to the ecclesiastical court and was immediately advised that individuals practicing these forms of witchcraft should be excommunicated and given the death penalty.
So, during the Oprichnina — , Ivan IV succeeded in accusing and charging a good number of boyars with witchcraft whom he did not wish to remain as nobles.
Rulers after Ivan IV, specifically during the Time of Troubles — , increased the fear of witchcraft among themselves and entire royal families, which then led to further preoccupation with the fear of prominent Muscovite witchcraft circles.
After the Time of Troubles, seventeenth-century Muscovite rulers held frequent investigations of witchcraft within their households, laying the ground, along with previous tsarist reforms, for widespread witchcraft trials throughout the Muscovite state.
Witches have a long history of being depicted in art, although most of their earliest artistic depictions seem to originate in Early Modern Europe, particularly the Medieval and Renaissance periods.
Many scholars attribute their manifestation in art as inspired by texts such as Canon Episcopi , a demonology-centered work of literature, and Malleus Maleficarum , a "witch-craze" manual published in , by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger.
Canon Episcopi , a ninth-century text that explored the subject of demonology, initially introduced concepts that would continuously be associated with witches, such as their ability to fly or their believed fornication and sexual relations with the devil.
The text refers to two women, Diana the Huntress and Herodias, who both express the duality of female sorcerers. Diana was described as having a heavenly body and as the "protectress of childbirth and fertility" while Herodias symbolized "unbridled sensuality".
They thus represent the mental powers and cunning sexuality that witches used as weapons to trick men into performing sinful acts which would result in their eternal punishment.
These characteristics were distinguished as Medusa-like or Lamia-like traits when seen in any artwork Medusa's mental trickery was associated with Diana the Huntress's psychic powers and Lamia was a rumored female figure in the Medieval ages sometimes used in place of Herodias.
One of the first individuals to regularly depict witches after the witch-craze of the medieval period was Albrecht Dürer , a German Renaissance artist.
His famous engraving The Four Witches , portrays four physically attractive and seductive nude witches. Their supernatural identities are emphasized by the skulls and bones lying at their feet as well as the devil discreetly peering at them from their left.
The women's sensuous presentation speaks to the overtly sexual nature they were attached to in early modern Europe.
Moreover, this attractiveness was perceived as a danger to ordinary men who they could seduce and tempt into their sinful world.
Dürer also employed other ideas from the Middle Ages that were commonly associated with witches. Specifically, his art often referred to former 12th- to 13th-century Medieval iconography addressing the nature of female sorcerers.
In the Medieval period, there was a widespread fear of witches, accordingly producing an association of dark, intimidating characteristics with witches, such as cannibalism witches described as "[sucking] the blood of newborn infants"  or described as having the ability to fly, usually on the back of black goats.
As the Renaissance period began, these concepts of witchcraft were suppressed, leading to a drastic change in the sorceress' appearances, from sexually explicit beings to the 'ordinary' typical housewives of this time period.
This depiction, known as the 'Waldensian' witch became a cultural phenomenon of early Renaissance art. The term originates from the 12th-century monk Peter Waldo, who established his own religious sect which explicitly opposed the luxury and commodity-influenced lifestyle of the Christian church clergy, and whose sect was excommunicated before being persecuted as "practitioners of witchcraft and magic".
Subsequent artwork exhibiting witches tended to consistently rely on cultural stereotypes about these women.
These stereotypes were usually rooted in early Renaissance religious discourse, specifically the Christian belief that an "earthly alliance" had taken place between Satan's female minions who "conspired to destroy Christendom".
Another significant artist whose art consistently depicted witches was Dürer's apprentice, Hans Baldung Grien, a 15th-century German artist. His chiaroscuro woodcut, Witches , created in , visually encompassed all the characteristics that were regularly assigned to witches during the Renaissance.
Social beliefs labeled witches as supernatural beings capable of doing great harm, possessing the ability to fly, and as cannibalistic. Meanwhile, their nudity while feasting is recognized as an allusion to their sexual appetite, and some scholars read the witch riding on the back of a goat-demon as representative of their "flight-inducing [powers]".
This connection between women's sexual nature and sins was thematic in the pieces of many Renaissance artists, especially Christian artists, due to cultural beliefs which characterized women as overtly sexual beings who were less capable in comparison to men of resisting sinful temptation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Witchcraft disambiguation and Witch disambiguation.
Folk religion , Magical thinking , and Shamanism. Neoshamanism and Modern paganism. Satanism and Satanism and Witchcraft.
Witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible. Christian views on magic. It is not to be confused with Djembe. Witchcraft accusations against children in Africa.
Human rights in ISIL-controlled territory. European witchcraft and Witch trials in Early Modern Europe. Witch trials in early modern Scotland.
Akelarre witchcraft and Catalan mythology about witches. Distinguishing disease from witchcraft". Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 31 October The Origin and Meaning of the Word "Witch"".
Retrieved 29 October Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. Religion and the Decline of Magic. The first three categories were proposed by Richard Kieckhefer , the fourth added by Christina Larner.
Witches, Druids and King Arthur. Journal of Religious History. University of Chicago Press, Marian, The Silver Bough: Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: A Regional and Comparative Study.
Retrieved 31 October — via Google Books. The Discoverie of Witchcraft. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 17 October Responding to witchcraft accusations against children, in New Issues in refugee Research Children accused of witchcraft, An anthropological study of contemporary practices in Africa.
The Invention of Child Witches in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Social cleansing, religious commerce and the difficulties of being a parent in an urban culture.
Children in the DRC. Couple jailed for Kristy Bamu killing". Blackwell Publishers , Hutton, Ronald, The Triumph of the Moon: Gerald Gardner and the Cauldron of Inspiration.
Witchcraft Out of the Shadows. Llewellyn Publications , Young People, Texts, Cultures. Witches and wiccans in contemporary teen fiction". Children's Literature in Education.
Proceedings of the International Communication Association. Point of Inquiry Interview. Retrieved 9 December Martello, Interview with Sloane on pp.
Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved March 24, The devil and the deep blue sea: Navy gives blessing to sailor Satanist.
In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Retrieved 16 September There is some discrepancy between translations; compare with that given in the Catholic Encyclopedia article on Witchcraft accessed 31 March , and the L.
King translation Archived at the Wayback Machine. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World. Magic and Divination in Early Islam.
Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition , Edited by: Accessed 5 August First published online: Other Beliefs and Practices". Leaman, Oliver, , Credo Reference.
Zad al-Ma'ad [ Provisions of the Hereafter ]. Dämonenwelt und Geisteraustreibung im Islam. Kornelius Hentschel, Diederichs , Germany. The Wesleyan Juvenile Offering: Retrieved 29 February Archived from the original on Retrieved 2 August Accused of witchcraft by parents and churches, children in the Democratic Republic of Congo are being rescued by Christian activists".
Widows' lives in exile". Retrieved September 1, The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind. The University of Chicago Press.
Tanzania's albinos , BBC News. A review of the literature on psychiatry and Brua". From Puritans to presidents". The Salem Witch Trials.
History of Fentress County, Tennessee. Touring the East Tennessee Backroads. Henrietta; Krueger, Victoria Medicine women, curanderas, and women doctors.
University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved 8 October Adrienne, " Magic in North America Part 1: Accessed 9 April University of Nebraska Press, , p.
Duke University Press, , p. The Times of India. A Study of Shamanistic Practices in Japan. The Jerusalem Post JPost. Their Foundations in Popular and Learned Culture, — Levack The Witch Hunt in Early Modern Europe multiplied the number of known European witch trials by the average rate of conviction and execution, to arrive at a figure of around 60, deaths.
Anne Lewellyn Barstow Witchcraze adjusted Levack's estimate to account for lost records, estimating , deaths.
Ronald Hutton Triumph of the Moon argues that Levack's estimate had already been adjusted for these, and revises the figure to approximately 40, Disguised as the Devil: Keith Thomas and the problem of witchcraft" in Jonathan Barry et al.
Studies in Culture and Belief pp. A Regional and Comparative Study Magic and Adultery in the Court of Chancery circa Retrieved 1 June Witchcraft and the Inquisition in Venice, — Their Foundation in Popular and Learned Culture, — Words and Deeds in Renaissance Rome: Trials before the Papal Magistrates.
University of Toronto Press. Johns Hopkins University Press. Nefarious Crimes, Contested Justice: Illicit Sex, and Infanticide in the Republic of Venice, Retrieved February 10, The Hispanic American Historical Review.
Cook Islands Maori Dictionary. Cook Islands Ministry of Education. The south Pacific and New Guinea, past and present; with notes on the Hervey group, an illustrative song and various myths.
Charles Potter, Government Printer. In the Strange South Seas. The Bathhouse at Midnight: London, , page Comparative Studies in Society and History.
Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England". Hast du den Topf gefüllt, erreichst du das nächste Level. Weitere Spiele, die dir gefallen könnten.
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